The Cold War prevails as Stalin dies in In the absence of an acceptable successor, the highest Communist Party officials opted to rule the Soviet Union jointly, although a struggle for power took place behind the facade of collective leadership. In theory, the ruling body of the communist party ref. Following the ousting of Khrushchev, another period of rule by collective leadership ensued, lasting until Leonid Brezhnev established himself in the early s as the preeminent figure in Soviet political life Russian Reading Revolution read epub Russian Reading Revolution Studies in.
The way the Cold War ended was mostly unexpected and surprised almost everyone in the field of international relations.
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The shift is also accompanied by the gradualIslamization of the country led by the ruling Islamist Justice and DevelopmentParty known as the AKP , headed by Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan, whohas managed to tap into rising popular nationalism by fusing it with Islam. His mission and that of the perestroishchiki, his brain trust of pro-reform advisers, was to reorganize and revitalize the Soviet system; but to do so they needed to create a favorable international situation that would enable them to relieve the material burden of arms competition with the West download.
Two of the most important sanatoriums for the mobility disabled in the Soviet Union were located in the Ukrainian SSR — in Saki the Crimea and Slavinsk Donets'k oblast' — and these were major sites of networking and exchange of information and ideas between persons taking advantage of "health trips" provided by the Soviet state , source: Lenin's Final Fight: Speeches read pdf www.
It was led by King Zahir Shah, who, like his predecessors, was unable to merge the existing tribal society with a central government ref. This question was not that much of a conundrum for those who viewed the Soviet Union as a "degenerated" workers' state from which it followed that national Communist parties were a legitimate but badly deformed wing of the international labor movement , cited: Democracy and Autocracy in Eurasia: Georgia in Transition Eurasian Political Econ. In industry, the state assumed control over all existing enterprises and undertook an intensive program of industrialization; in agriculture collective farms were established all over the country.
The program explains the motivation behind the film and contains illumination of Tarkovskij's working methods and style and how he overcame various technical problems during the film-making. Includes interviews with members of the cast and crew. Moreover, it involved deep institutional infighting.
Was it the discovery that Ireland offered a back door into Britain for German and non-Commonwealth firms that played a decisive role? The irony, of course, was that Ireland had chosen to leave the Commonwealth when it became a Republic in Nonetheless, it retained preferential trade access in a gesture of British benevolence. What is clear is that the Second Interparty Government, led by taoiseach John A Costello, experimented in desperation from to Whether by accident or design it forged a new economic approach.
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By the Irish socio-economic crisis was acute. Highly regarded German manufacturers had re-established their prewar markets in Ireland. These iconic cars were the first VW cars assembled outside of Germany. Successive Irish governments after assumed Ireland could equalise the trading relationship as West Germany was dependent on food imports.
Global special import levies were introduced by the minister for finance, Gerard Sweetman, in to deal with the balance-of-payments deficit.
These hurt German exporters but they did not alter the fundamental Irish-German trade imbalance. Dublin adopted tough bargaining tactics in the annual trade negotiations with Germany but the Second Interparty Government proved powerless to reset the unequal trade balance by increasing food exports. Eventually, the authorities recognised that a failure to agree trade deals with West Germany would rebound and cause greater damage to Ireland.
Another way forward was needed.
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Before regular enquiries were received by the Irish authorities from German companies. But they were not welcomed or assisted by the Department of Industry and Commerce which was committed to the policy of national self-sufficiency autarky. That involved setting up firms to supply the home market and displace British imports. It was the pencil manufacturer Faber-Castell from near Nuremburg which turned out to be the trailblazer that began to change Irish thinking.
The Fermoy Progressive Association promoted the Co Cork town as an investment location in the early s. Among the initial firms attracted to locate there, with the assistance of Industry and Commerce, was Faber-Castell.
After Norton and Industry and Commerce afforded Faber-Castell all the necessary assistance that they could to replace British imports and develop exports to the British Commonwealth. Norton listened to the Industrial Development Authority IDA and decided to launch a campaign to attract export-oriented foreign companies. This squared the circle of preserving the interests of the protected Irish firms that supplied the domestic market, while securing foreign capital and boosting exports. He caused a media sensation at a press conference in Bonn in August when he emphasised that German firms based in Ireland could tunnel under Commonwealth tariffs.
Several decisions were made by the Second Interparty Government to assist the search for foreign investment, such as nationwide grants for site acquisition and factory construction. The minister for finance also catapulted the talented and young 40 years old TK Kenneth Whitaker in as secretary of the Department of Finance in May His meteoric rise broke all the rules of seniority in the Irish civil service. It is often overlooked that the celebrated Export Profits Tax Relief, which was designed to appeal to foreign investors, was first introduced by Norton and Costello in Future governments would refine and perfect a more coherent package of incentives.
This was well-timed to exploit a burgeoning German tourist interest in Ireland.
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His charming account of the west of Ireland, and in particular Achill Island, had a powerful influence on his countrymen who wished to escape the industrial modernity of West Germany. This close working partnership is usually regarded as laying the groundwork for the First Programme for Economic Expansion to promote foreign companies to invest in Ireland and achieve a reversal in Irish fortunes.
Yet the record clearly shows Whitaker was not an admirer of export-oriented foreign firms during the s, so he cannot be credited for this innovation. Moreover, Lemass was not a strong supporter of the IDA when he was minister for industry and commerce from to , although he was growing disillusioned with protectionism.
Historical revisionism in Central Europe after 1989
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Maryanne Salm added it Jan 07, Haseeb Hassan marked it as to-read Jan 19, Michael Fiumano marked it as to-read Feb 18, There are no discussion topics on this book yet. A specialist in political systems and comparative politics, he is director of the University of Maryland's Center for the Study of Post-Communist Societies, having served as chairman of the editorial committee — and editor — of the East European Politics and Societies academic review.
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