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Those authors developed an encapsulation procedure that utilised negatively charged phospholipids to produce nanocapsules that have an unprecedented drug-to-lipid ratio and an in vitro cytotoxicity up to fold higher than free cisplatin. However, a major problem still remains with targetting the nanocapsules to specific diseased organs to improve the efficacy and delivery of the encapsulated drug. Such an approach was adopted in the targetting of liposomes to infected macrophages In that example, the mannosyl-fucosyl receptors on macrophages were targetted by mannosylated or fucosylated liposomes containing the antileishmanial drug andrographolide to treat experimental leishmaniasis in the hamster model.
A nanobiotechnology approach is to encapsulate the drug in magnetic liposomes and then utilise a permanent magnet to attract the magnetic liposomes to the target organ or tumour. This approach was utilised to target magnetic liposomes with incorporated adriamycin to experimentally induced osteosarcoma in a hamster model The authors reported some success in achieving a higher concentration of adriamycon in the tumour compared to an intravenous injection of a solution of the drug. However, the clinical use of that approach would require the identification of all tumours and the implantation of permanent magnets into all of those identified tumours.
Such applications of lipid bilayer nanobiotechnology will not be considered further in the subsequent chapters of this book. We will introduce the concept of implants, but not discuss this in the following chapters. Implants and tissue engineering are well-developed applications that use several principles of nanobiotechnology. Many of the application areas are in arterial implants. Some of the early work in this field recognised the value of lipid bilayers to reduce coagulation for materials that were in contact with blood Those authors coated the surface of polymers with phosphatidylcholine polar groups to try and mimic the cell surface and improve the haemocompatibility of arterial implants.
With the recent advances in genetic engineering, there is considerable research in transplantation of pancreatic islet cells to treat diabetes.
Such implanted tissue needs to be protected from immune rejection. The cell membrane establishes an important paradigm for the design of an effective biomimetic immunoisolation barrier for implanted islets, in addition to the capacity of the cell membrane to control interfacial mass transport Another area of implantation that will 1.
Significance of Biomimetic Membrane Nanobiotechnology 17 become more significant is in neural implants.
The use of nanobiotechnology to produce biomimetic surfaces for neural implants is an area of increasing research activity Whilst we will not dwell further on the detail of lipid bilayers and implants, it is clear that a lipid bilayer membrane provides a better biomimetic immunoisolation barrier and more sophisticated means of controlling mass transport into and out of the implant than would a polymeric material. Concluding Remarks The remaining chapters of this book look more closely at the technical detail of the production of lipid bilayer membranes, the characterisation of lipid bilayer membranes, and how lipid bilayer membranes are relevant to the development of biosensor applications.
The application of lipid bilayer membranes to biosensors provides a fundamental example of the principles of nanobiotechnology. References 1. Weissmann, A. Brand, and E. Franklin, Interaction of immunoglobulins with liposomes, J Clin Invest. Sakmann, and E.
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- The Thing Itself (Brighton, Book 3).
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Nanobiotechnology of Biomimetic Membranes: Nanobiotechnology of Biomimetic Membranes
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